Consider the difficulties of space communications also the large packets of information that when they enter the earth’s atmosphere then need to compete to get fully received. Some of the communications are mission critical or filled with a lot of data and have traveled a long way to get garbled at the last minute.
So the format of communications that NASA is testing in this long duration experiment The wavelength of the laser light is much shorter than radio waves and is not spread out as much as it travels through space. What NASA hopes this new technology will deliver is video and high resolution measurements from all across the solar system. When trying to understand this concept best to dial it back. Think about the communications employed for phone communications that send signals instead of down a copper wire as a laser beam down a glass tubing. Using complex modulators to shape the laser pulses that are sent through fiber optic cables. Now take this form of communications and amplify it!
Obviously the sort of laser utilized in fiber optic cables and the kind that NASA is dreaming up besides being in different areas of the spectrum, NASA’s is capable of a lot more – distance, data rates, collection, etc. But you get the idea.
I have no idea whether this will be a viable format or not, but I think it is one worth exploring.